Periodontal diseases are mainly characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and supporting connective tissue leading to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss[¹]. Periodontal disease may also present a systemic infectious and inflammatory burden with potential effects on overall health[²'³'⁴].
Potential biological pathways
Certain potential biological mechanisms have been proposed for the associations between periodontal disease and systemic diseases. Periodontal disease may create an oral wound that permits invasive oral microorganisms the opportunity to potentially spread through the body via the cardiovascular system.
Periodontal diseases may: · Create an oral wound that permits invasive oral microorganisms the opportunity to potentially spread through the body via the cardiovascular system⁵ · Present a systemic infectious and inflammatory burden with potential effects on overall health² ³ ⁴ · Contribute to increased risk of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and pregnancy complications⁶
Periodontal disease is one risk factor among other known factors that may contribute to increased risk of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and pregnancy complications⁶. Additional research is needed to define the exact mechanisms of these associations, and Philips is proud to be leading through internal and external research relationships.
1. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res 2012; 91: 914-920. 2. Van Dyke TE, Kornman KS. Inflammation and factors that may regulate inflammatory response. J Periodontol 2008; 79 (8 suppl): 1503-1507. 3. Medzhitov R. Inflammation 2010: New adventures of an old flame. Cell 2010; 140: 771-776. 4. Van Dyke TE. Cellular and molecular susceptibility determinants for periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 2007: 45: 10-13. 5. Han YW, Wang X. Mobile microbiome: Oral bacteria in extra-oral infections and inflammation. J Dent Res 2013; 92: 485-491. 6. Aleksejuniene J, Holst D, Eriksen HM, Gjermo P. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle, and periodontal health. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 326-335.
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